Skin disease: Moles

Moles

Any noticeable mole should be clarified by a doctor. This is especially true for people whose family members have already developed skin cancer. Cosmetically annoying moles (for example on the face) can also be a reason for a doctor’s visit. Read more about the symptoms, causes and treatment of moles.

Synonyms

Birthmarks, pigment spots, nevi

definition

Moles are congenital or later pigmented malformations of the skin. They are popularly called birthmarks. Doctors refer to liver spots as pigment spots or pigment nevi, or nevi for short. Sometimes moles are perceived as visually annoying, often the small spots make the face really attractive. Freckles and age spots are also pigment spots. Most moles are harmless, but rarely can they become malignant and cause skin cancer . This is why you should always keep an eye on moles.

Colored by melanin

Moles are caused by an accumulation of pigment-producing cells. These cells are called melanocytes. They form the yellow-brown pigment melanin. Melanin gives the skin its individual color and protects it from aggressive sunlight. Melanin is also responsible for the color of the liver spots. If the melanocytes proliferate in the moles, moles get a raised and sometimes irregularly hilly surface.

Keep an eye on moles

You should keep an eye on moles and look for five features on a regular basis. These are easy to remember via the ABCDE rule:

  • A for expansion: Any non-symmetrical, for example non-round or oval, mole should be examined by a doctor.
  • B for border: irregular or blurred moles could be malignant.
  • C for Color (color): Be careful with different degrees of color pigmentation and multicolor within a mole.
  • D for diameter: moles that are larger than 5 mm have an increased risk of being malignant.
  • E as in sublime / development: raised moles or new moles within a short period of time are considered questionable.

Furthermore, any mole that itches, wets, bleeds, hurts or becomes infected is suspect.

Symptoms

Moles can be colored differently. The color shades range from yellow to light, medium and dark brown to deep black. They vary in size from tiny and rounded to large, are irregularly extended and have different surfaces. There are smooth, raised, uneven or hairy moles.

causes

To this day, doctors do not know why a person has more moles than others. The ability to develop moles is often inherited.

Liver spots occur mainly in childhood and adolescence. The brown spots often multiply during pregnancy or when taking birth control pills . As a result, hormonal involvement in the development of moles is close. Sun exposure can also lead to increased pigment spots.

examination

An experienced dermatologist can often tell at first glance whether liver spots are harmless or malignant black skin cancer . The dermatologist also does a so-called scan. The shape and color as well as other features of liver spots are documented using a camera and usually analyzed by a computer program.

If in doubt, the dermatologist will take a suspicious mole for a sample and have it examined in the laboratory under a microscope.

treatment

Liver spots can be removed surgically, with a laser or with intensely pulsed light (IPL). The patient and the lady dermatologist in delhi decide which procedure to choose.

Surgically remove moles

First, the affected area is disinfected. After the disinfection, the doctor injects a local anesthetic to make the area insensitive. Then he cuts out the mole with a small scalpel. For larger moles, this area must be sewn with a few stitches. However, this is usually not necessary for smaller moles. Every removed mole is sent to a laboratory and examined in a tissue-like manner. You can usually go home straight away after the procedure. The doctor will inform you beforehand about the appropriate follow-up treatment.

Remove moles with the laser

Many dermatologists recommend their patients to have cosmetically annoying liver spots removed by laser. Lasers work gently and precisely. After skin disinfection and a superficial anesthetic, the laser beams penetrate the upper layer of the skin. This releases heat. This heat destroys the increased melanin in moles. The adjacent tissue is not destroyed. After the treatment, the mole initially appears a little darker and scabs after a few days.

Remove moles with light

In the IPL treatment (intensely pulsed light), moles are removed by high-energy flashes of light. This treatment is only suitable for cosmetic purposes. In the IPL treatment, the pigments within the mole are destroyed, similar to the laser, and the skin area is lightened. However, the skin cells themselves are retained.

Self-help with moles

There are a few behaviors to keep in mind when dealing with moles. For example, it is very important to avoid irritation. First and foremost, this means: Don’t scratch! Scratching moles (like other pigment spots) stimulates malignant growth. The following also applies to liver spots:

  • Always use sunscreen in the sun. Avoid long stays in the sun.
  • Observe whether birthmarks and other pigment spots change or new ones appear.
  • Flat, smooth pigment spots that are at the level of the skin can be covered with cosmetics; a suitable method is camouflage make-up.
  • If you have a lot of moles and other marks and / or your family has skin cancer, you should have regular skin checkups.

 

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